Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 26, 2009
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States. The accompanying consolidated financial statements reflect the accounts of Garmin Ltd. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated. Prior year reclassifications have been made between noncurrent deferred tax liabilities and noncurrent deferred tax assets to reflect the net tax position in various jurisdictions and between deferred revenue and other accrued expenses to reflect the 2008 balance. The change was not material.
The Company has adopted a 52–53-week period ending on the last Saturday of the calendar year. Due to the fact that there are not exactly 52 weeks in a calendar year and there is slightly more than one additional day per year (not including the effects of leap year) in each calendar year as compared to a 52-week fiscal year, the Company will have a fiscal year comprising 53 weeks in certain fiscal years, as determined by when the last Saturday of the calendar year occurs.
In those resulting fiscal years that have 53 weeks, the Company will record an extra week of sales, costs, and related financial activity. Therefore, the financial results of those fiscal years, and the associated 14-week fourth quarter, will not be entirely comparable to the prior and subsequent 52-week fiscal years and the associated quarters having only 13 weeks. Fiscal 2009, 2008, and 2007 included 52 weeks.
Foreign Currency Translation
Many Garmin Ltd. subsidiaries utilize currencies other than the United States Dollar (USD) as their functional currency. As required by the Foreign Currency Matters topic of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC), the financial statements of these subsidiaries for all periods presented have been translated into USD, the functional currency of Garmin Ltd. and GII, and the reporting currency herein, for purposes of consolidation at rates prevailing during the year for sales, costs, and expenses and at end-of-year rates for all assets and liabilities. The effect of this translation is recorded in a separate component of stockholders’ equity. Cumulative translation adjustments of $9,231 and ($15,306) as of December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, respectively, net of related taxes, have been included in accumulated other comprehensive gain/(loss) in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
Transactions in foreign currencies are recorded at the approximate rate of exchange at the transaction date. Assets and liabilities resulting from these transactions are translated at the rate of exchange in effect at the balance sheet date. All differences are recorded in results of operations and amounted to exchange gains/(losses) of ($6,040), ($35,286), and $22,964 for the years ended December 26, 2009, December 27, 2008, and December 29, 2007, respectively. The loss in fiscal 2009 was primarily the result of the weakening of the USD against the Taiwan Dollar offset by the weakening of the USD against the Euro and the British Pound Sterling. The loss in fiscal 2008 was the result of the strengthening of the USD offset by a gain associated with the sale and tender of our Tele Atlas N.V. shares. The gain in fiscal 2007 was the result of the strengthening of the Euro and British Pound Sterling relative to the USD experienced by our European companies.
Earnings Per Share
Basic earnings per share amounts are computed based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. For purposes of diluted earnings per share, the number of shares that would be issued from the exercise of dilutive stock options has been reduced by the number of shares which could have been purchased from the proceeds of the exercise at the average market price of the Company’s stock during the period the options were outstanding. See Note 10.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
For purposes of reporting cash flows, cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, operating accounts, money market funds, and securities with maturities of three months or less when purchased. The carrying amount of cash and cash equivalents approximates fair value, given the short maturity of those instruments.
Trade Accounts Receivable
The Company sells its products to retailers, wholesalers, and other customers and extends credit based on its evaluation of the customer’s financial condition. Potential losses on receivables are dependent on each individual customer’s financial condition. The Company carries its trade accounts receivable at net realizable value. Typically, its accounts receivable are collected within 60 days and do not bear interest. The Company monitors its exposure to losses on receivables and maintains allowances for potential losses or adjustments. The Company determines these allowances by (1) evaluating the aging of its receivables and (2) reviewing its high-risk customers. Past due receivable balances are written off when its internal collection efforts have been unsuccessful in collecting the amount due.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined using the weighted-average method (which approximates the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method) by GC and the FIFO method by GII, GAT and GEL. Inventories consisted of the following:
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
As required by the Property, Plant and Equipment topic of the FASB ASC, the Company reviews long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. That assessment is based on the carrying amount of the asset at the date it is tested for recoverability. An impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of a long-lived asset exceeds its fair value.
The Intangibles – Goodwill and Other topic of the FASB ASC requires that goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives should not be amortized but rather be tested for impairment at least annually or sooner whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that they may be impaired. The Company did not recognize any goodwill or intangible asset impairment charges in 2009, 2008, or 2007. The Company established reporting units based on its current reporting structure. For purposes of testing goodwill for impairment, goodwill has been allocated to these reporting units to the extent it relates to each reporting unit. The accounting guidance also requires that intangible assets with definite lives be amortized over their estimated useful lives and reviewed for impairment. The Company is currently amortizing its acquired intangible assets with definite lives over periods ranging from 3 to 10 years.
On July 30, 2009 the Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.75 per share to be paid on December 15, 2009 to shareholders of record on December 1, 2009. The Company paid out a dividend in the amount of $149,846. The dividend has been reported as a reduction of retained earnings.
On June 6, 2008 the Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.75 per share to be paid on December 15, 2008 to shareholders of record on December 1, 2008. The Company paid out a dividend in the amount of $150,251. The dividend has been reported as a reduction of retained earnings.
On August 1, 2007 the Board of Directors declared a dividend of $0.75 per share to be paid on September 14, 2007 to shareholders of record on August 15, 2007. The Company paid out a dividend in the amount of $162,531. The dividend has been reported as a reduction of retained earnings.
Approximately $199,549 and $186,383 of retained earnings are indefinitely restricted from distribution to stockholders pursuant to the laws of Taiwan at December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, respectively.
At December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, the Company had patents, license agreements, customer related intangibles and other identifiable finite-lived intangible assets recorded at a cost of $173,018 and $152,104, respectively. The Company’s excess purchase cost over fair value of net assets acquired (goodwill) was $129,066 at December 26, 2009 and $127,429 at December 27, 2008.
Identifiable, finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over their estimated useful lives on a straight-line basis over three to ten years. Accumulated amortization was $80,428 and $48,579 at December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008 respectively. Amortization expense was $37,444, $30,874, and $26,942, for the years ended December 26, 2009, December 27, 2008, and December 29, 2007, respectively. In the next five years, the amortization expense is estimated to be $41,025, $24,945, $13,933, $4,572, and $2,539, respectively.
Management determines the appropriate classification of marketable securities at the time of purchase and reevaluates such designation as of each balance sheet date.
All of the Company’s marketable securities are considered available-for-sale at December 26, 2009. See Note 3. Available-for-sale securities are stated at fair value, with the unrealized gains and losses, net of tax, reported in other comprehensive gain/(loss). At December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, cumulative unrealized gains/(losses) of ($22,613) and ($22,345), respectively, were reported accumulated in other comprehensive gain/(loss), net of related taxes.
The amortized cost of debt securities classified as available-for-sale is adjusted for amortization of premiums and accretion of discounts to maturity, or in the case of mortgage-backed securities, over the estimated life of the security. Such amortization is included in interest income from investments. Realized gains and losses, and declines in value judged to be other-than-temporary are included in other income. The cost of securities sold is based on the specific identification method.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the liability method in accordance with the FASB ASC topic Income Taxes. The liability method provides that deferred tax assets and liabilities are recorded based on the difference between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amount for financial reporting purposes as measured by the enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. Income taxes of $171,097 and $153,170 at December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, respectively, have not been accrued by the Company for the unremitted earnings of several of its subsidiaries because such earnings are intended to be reinvested in the subsidiaries indefinitely.
The Company adopted the applicable guidance included in the FASB ASC topic Income Taxes related to accounting for uncertainty in income taxes on December 31, 2006, the beginning of fiscal year 2007. The total amount of unrecognized tax benefits as of December 26, 2009 was $255.7 million including interest of $20.1 million. A reconciliation of the beginning and ending amount of unrecognized tax benefits for years ending December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008 is as follows (in $millions):
The December 26, 2009 balance of $255.7 million of unrecognized tax benefits, if recognized, would reduce the effective tax rate. None of the unrecognized tax benefits are due to uncertainty in the timing of deductibility.
Accounting guidance requires unrecognized tax benefits to be classified as non-current liabilities, except for the portion that is expected to be paid within one year of the balance sheet date. The entire $255.7 million and $214.4 million are required to be classified as non-current at December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, respectively.
Interest expense and penalties, if any, accrued on the unrecognized tax benefits are reflected in income tax expense. At December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008, the Company had accrued approximately $20.1 and $11.1 million respectively for interest. Interest expense included in income tax expense for the years ending December 26, 2009 and December 27, 2008 are $9.0 million and $6.4 million, respectively. The Company had no amounts accrued for penalties as the nature of the unrecognized tax benefits, if recognized, would not warrant the imposition of penalties.
The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, and various state, local and foreign jurisdictions. The Company is no longer subject to U.S. federal, state, or local tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2006. The Company is no longer subject to Taiwan income tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2004. The Company is no longer subject to United Kingdom tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2008.
The Company believes that it is reasonably possible that approximately $30 million of its reserves for certain unrecognized tax benefits will decrease within the next 12 months as the result of the expiration of statute of limitations. This potential decrease in unrecognized tax benefits would impact the Company’s effective tax rate within the next 12 months.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company grants credit to certain customers who meet the Company’s pre-established credit requirements. Generally, the Company does not require security when trade credit is granted to customers. Credit losses are provided for in the Company’s consolidated financial statements and typically have been within management’s expectations. Credit risk has become more significant in fiscal 2009 due to the macro economic conditions but the Company is managing credit terms and balances accordingly. Certain customers are allowed extended terms consistent with normal industry practice. Most of these extended terms can be classified as either relating to seasonal sales variations or to the timing of new product releases by the Company.
Garmin recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collection is probable. For the large majority of Garmin’s sales, these criteria are met once product has shipped and title and risk of loss have transferred to the customer. The Company recognizes revenue from the sale of hardware products and software bundled with hardware that is essential to the functionality of the hardware in accordance with general revenue recognition accounting guidance. The Company recognizes revenue in accordance with industry specific software accounting guidance for standalone sales of software products and sales of software bundled with hardware not essential to the functionality of the hardware. The Company generally does not offer specified or unspecified upgrade rights to its customers in connection with software sales.
Garmin introduced nüMaps Lifetime™ in January 2009, which is a single fee program that, subject to the program’s terms and conditions, enables customers to download the latest map and point of interest information every quarter for the useful life of their PND. The revenue and associated cost of royalties for sales of nüMaps Lifetime™ products are deferred at the time of sale and recognized ratably on a straight-line basis over the currently estimated three-year life of the products.
For multi-element arrangements that include tangible products that contain software that is essential to the tangible product’s functionality and undelivered software elements that relate to the tangible product’s essential software, the Company allocates revenue to all deliverables based on their relative selling prices. In such circumstances, the new accounting principles establish a hierarchy to determine the selling price to be used for allocating revenue to deliverables as follows: (i) vendor-specific objective evidence of fair value (“VSOE”), (ii) third-party evidence of selling price (“TPE”), and (iii) best estimate of the selling price (“ESP”). VSOE generally exists only when the Company sells the deliverable separately and is the price actually charged by the Company for that deliverable.
In 2009, Garmin introduced the nüvi 1690, a premium PND with a builtin wireless module that lets customers access Garmin’s nüLink!™ service, which provides direct links to certain online information. The Company has identified two deliverables contained in arrangements involving the sale of the nüvi 1690. The first deliverable is the hardware and software essential to the functionality of the hardware device delivered at the time of sale, and the second deliverable is the nüLink service. The Company has allocated revenue between these two deliverables using the relative selling price method determined using VSOE. Amounts allocated to the delivered hardware and the related essential software are recognized at the time of sale provided the other conditions for revenue recognition have been met. Amounts allocated to the nüLink services are deferred and recognized on a straight-line basis over the 24-month life of the service.
The Company records reductions to revenue for expected future product returns based on the Company’s historical experience.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs are included in cost of goods sold in the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
The Company provides for estimated warranty costs at the time of sale. The warranty period is generally for one year from date of shipment with the exception of certain aviation products for which the warranty period is two years from the date of installation and certain marine products for which the warranty period is three years from the date of shipment.
The Company provides certain monthly and quarterly incentives for its dealers and distributors based on various factors including dealer purchasing volume and growth. Additionally, from time to time, the Company provides rebates to end users on certain products. Estimated rebates and incentives payable to dealers and distributors are regularly reviewed and recorded as accrued expenses on a monthly basis. In addition, the Company provides dealers and distributors with product discounts termed “price protection” to assist these customers in clearing older products from their inventories in advance of new product releases. Each price protection discount is tied to a specific product and can be applied to all customers who have purchased the price protected product or a special price protection discount may be agreed to on an individual customer basis. These rebates, incentives, and price protections are recorded as reductions to net sales in the accompanying consolidated statements of income in the period the Company has sold the product.
The Company expenses advertising costs as incurred. Advertising expense amounted to approximately $155,521, $208,177, and $206,948 for the years ended December 26, 2009, December 27, 2008, and December 29, 2007, respectively.
Research and Development
A majority of the Company’s research and development is performed in the United States. Research and development costs, which are expensed as incurred, amounted to approximately $238,378, $206,109, and $159,406 for the years ended December 26, 2009, December 27, 2008, and December 29, 2007, respectively.
Customer Service and Technical Support
Customer service and technical support costs are included on the selling, general and administrative expense line on our statements of operations. Customer service and technical support costs include costs associated with performing order processing, answering customer inquiries by telephone and through Web sites, e-mail and other electronic means, and providing free technical support assistance to customers. The technical support is provided within one year after the associated revenue is recognized. The related cost of providing this free support is not material.
Software Development Costs
The FASB ASC topic entitled Software requires companies to expense software development costs as they incur them until technological feasibility has been established, at which time those costs are capitalized until the product is available for general release to customers. Our capitalized software development costs are not significant as the time elapsed from working model to release is typically short. As required by the Research and Development topic of the FASB ASC, costs we incur to enhance our existing products or after the general release of the service using the product are expensed in the period they are incurred and included in research and development costs on our statement of operations.
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The Company currently sponsors three stock based employee compensation plans. The FASB ASC topic entitled Compensation – Stock Compensation requires the measurement and recognition of compensation expenses for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors including employee stock options and restricted stock based on estimated fair values. See Note 9.
Accounting guidance requires companies to estimate the fair value of share-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model. The value of the portion of the award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as stock-based compensation expenses over the requisite service period in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
As stock-based compensation expenses recognized in the accompanying consolidated statement of income are based on awards ultimately expected to vest, they have been reduced for estimated forfeitures. Accounting guidance requires forfeitures to be estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates. Forfeitures were estimated based on historical experience and management’s estimates.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2008, the FASB issued EITF 071, Accounting for Collaborative Arrangements which was subsequently codified. EITF Issue 071 requires entities entering into collaborative arrangements in which two or more parties actively participate in a joint operating activity and are exposed to significant risks and rewards that depend on the commercial success of the joint operating activity to make specific disclosures regarding that arrangement. Garmin announced a strategic alliance with ASUSTeK Computer Inc. on February 4, 2009 to leverage the companies’ navigation and mobile telephony expertise to design, manufacture and distribute cobranded locationcentric mobile phones. The mobile phone product line is known as the GarminAsus nüvifone series. The Company has adopted EITF Issue 071 and the strategic alliance did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results in 2009.
In January 2009, the FASB released Proposed Staff Position SFAS 107-b and Accounting Principles Board (APB) Opinion No. 28-a, “Interim Disclosures about Fair Value of Financial Instruments” (SFAS 107-b and APB 28-a), both of which were subsequently codified. This proposal amends FASB Statement No. 107, “Disclosures about Fair Values of Financial Instruments,” to require disclosures about fair value of financial instruments in interim financial statements as well as in annual financial statements. The proposal also amends APB Opinion No. 28, “Interim Financial Reporting,” to require those disclosures in all interim financial statements. This proposal is effective for interim periods ending after June 15, 2009, but early adoption is permitted for interim periods ending after March 15, 2009. The Company has adopted SFAS 107-b and APB 28-a and the guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results in 2009.
In April 2009, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 157-4 (“FSP FAS 157-4”), “Determining Fair Value When the Volume and Level of Activity for the Asset or Liability has Significantly Decreased and Identifying Transactions That Are Not Orderly” and FSP No. FAS 115-2 and FAS 124-2 (“FSP FAS 115-2”), “Recognition and Presentation of Other-Than-Temporary Impairments”, both of which were subsequently codified. These two FSPs were issued to provide additional guidance about (1) measuring the fair value of financial instruments when the markets become inactive and quoted prices may reflect distressed transactions, and (2) recording impairment charges on investments in debt instruments. Additionally, the FASB issued FSP No. FAS 107-1 and APB 28-1 (“FSP FAS 107-1”), “Interim Disclosures about Fair Value of Financial Instruments,” to require disclosures of fair value of certain financial instruments in interim financial statements. These FSPs are effective for financial statements issued for interim and annual reporting periods ending after June 15, 2009. The Company has adopted the FSPs and the guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results in 2009.
In May 2009, the FASB issued SFAS No. 165, “Subsequent Events” (“SFAS 165”) which was subsequently codified. SFAS 165 establishes general standards of accounting for and disclosure of events that occur after the balance sheet date but before financial statements are issued or are available to be issued. SFAS 165 is effective for interim or annual financial periods ending after June 15, 2009. The Company adopted the provisions of SFAS 165 for the quarter ended June 27, 2009. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on the Company’s financial statements.
In June 2009, the FASB issued SFAS No. 168, “The FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM and the Hierarchy of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles a replacement of FASB Statement No. 162” (“SFAS 168”) which was subsequently codified. SFAS 168 provides for the FASB Accounting Standards CodificationTM (the “ASC”) to become the single official source of authoritative, nongovernmental U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The Codification did not change GAAP but reorganizes the literature. SFAS 168 is effective for interim and annual periods ending after September 15, 2009. The adoption of this standard did not have a material effect on our financial statements.
In October 2009, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update No. 2009-13, Revenue Recognition (Topic 605): Multiple-Deliverable Revenue Arrangements which was subsequently codified. This guidance modifies the fair value requirements of ASC subtopic 605-25 Revenue Recognition-Multiple Element Arrangements by allowing the use of the “best estimate of selling price” in addition to Vendor Specific Objective Evidence (“VSOE”) and third-party evidence (“TPE”) for determining the selling price of a deliverable. A vendor is now required to use its best estimate of the selling price when VSOE or TPE of the selling price cannot be determined. In addition, the residual method of allocating arrangement consideration is no longer permitted. The amendments included in this update will be effective prospectively for revenue arrangements entered into or materially modified in fiscal years beginning on or after June 15, 2010. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has adopted this guidance and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results in 2009, as the Company does not have a significant amount of sales that contain multiple elements.
In October 2009, the FASB issued Accounting Standard Update No. 2009-14, Software (Topic 985): Certain Revenue Arrangements That Include Software Elements which was subsequently codified. This guidance modifies the scope of ASC subtopic 965-605 Software-Revenue Recognition to exclude from its requirements (a) non-software components of tangible products and (b) software components of tangible products that are sold, licensed, or leased with tangible products when the software components and non-software components of the tangible product function together to deliver the tangible product’s essential functionality. The amendments included in this update will be effective prospectively for revenue arrangements entered into or materially modified in fiscal years beginning on or after June 15, 2010. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has adopted this guidance and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition or operating results in 2009, as the Company does not have a significant amount of sales that contain undelivered software components that are not essential to the product’s functionality.